Recent advances in immunotherapy in cancer treatment

Progress in the treatment of cancer


  • Ayyub A. Patel Ayyub Department of Clinical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


Cancer therapy, Checkpoint inhibitors, Biomarkers, CAR-T cells, Cancer vaccines, Immune system


Immunotherapy has emerged as a transformative approach in cancer treatment, leveraging the body’s own immune system to recognize and eradicate cancer cells. This review provides an overview of the recent advances and aspects in immunotherapy in cancer biology, from established therapies like checkpoint inhibitors and CAR-T cells to emerging innovative approaches and the challenges associated with their clinical translation.  

The exploration includes an examination of checkpoint inhibitors, elucidating the mechanisms behind programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors. Recent clinical successes and ongoing trials demonstrate the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors across diverse malignancies, underscoring the potential for durable responses and improved patient outcomes. CAR-T cell therapy represents a groundbreaking avenue in immunotherapy, involving the genetic modification of a patient's T cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for targeted cancer cell recognition.

Furthermore, the review touches on the challenges associated with immunotherapy, including resistance mechanisms and adverse effects. Insightful discussions on overcoming resistance through combination therapies, adaptive treatment strategies, and emerging technologies underscore the ongoing efforts to enhance the long-term efficacy of immunotherapeutic interventions. In summary, this extensive review provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in immunotherapy in cancer biology, highlighting the transformative impact of these therapies on patient outcomes, the challenges faced, and the promising directions for future research and clinical applications.